Activity B continued on next page Activity B continued from previous page 4. How many total autosomes do human cells have? Use the arrows to compare the chromosome you picked with chromosomes 1 through 22 and also with X and Y. Be sure to keep snapshots of both karyotypes. An extra chromosome 18 results in Edward syndrome. Then select another chromosome, identify it, and place it on the karyotype. Take a snapshot of the completed karyotype, paste it into your document, and label it. Is Subject B a male or female? Count : Chromosomes 1 through 22 are called autosomes.
How many chromosomes are present in each cell of this human? You will be arranging chromosomes into a completed karyotype, and interpreting your findings just as if you were working in a genetic analysis program at a hospital or clinic. Which chromosome did you select? Is Subject B a male or female? These chromosomes are unshaded on your karyotype 1. Does your karyotype represent a male of a female? A common misconception is that bands represent single genes, but in fact the thinnest bands contain over a million base pairs and potentially hundreds of genes. The diploid chromosome number is also called the 2n number. Once you have completed the karyotype, take a snapshot of it. What sex would a person with trisomy X be? Temporarily put the two unshaded chromosomes aside. Draw conclusions : Look at chromosome pair 23.
Extend your thinking : Klinefelter syndrome only affects males, and Turner syndrome only affects females. What syndrome does this unborn have? Put the sex chromosomes last, this is pair 23. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Paste the snapshot into a document. A karyotype is a pattern or picture of chromosomes from one cell grouped into pairs and organized by size. The term diploid chromosome number refers to the number of chromosomes in a somatic cell. You will evaluate 3 patients' case histories, complete their karyotypes, and diagnose any missing or extra chromosomes.
Cut out each chromosome with scissors, to make it go faster, cut them out as squares rather than trying to cut around the margin of each chromosome. To find your diploid number, simply count the number of chromosomes in your karyotype. These chromosomes are known as sex chromosomes because they determine the sex of an individual. What is the diploid chromosome number for your karyotype? What aspects of the genome can and cannot be determined through karyotyping? How do these two chromosomes compare? Karyotyping is one of many techniques that allow us to look for several thousand possible genetic diseases in humans. Individuals with a genetic disorder called trisomy X have three X chromosomes. Use the arrows to compare the chromosome you picked with chromosomes 1 through 22 and also with X and Y.
Repeat : Complete the karyotypes for Subject D and Subject E. The table below lists three common chromosomal disorders. The diploid number varies from species to species, however it does not differ from somatic cell to somatic cell within the same organism. If this is an assignment for a class, you should turn in a total of 7 answers on paper 2 for each patient, 1 for the internet search. How many total autosomes do human cells have? Then you'll conduct research on the internet to find web sites that cover some aspect of human genetics. In this karyotype, you will discover an abnormality in the chromosome number.
Look at the top corner, what Set do you have? A Chromosome Study In this activity, you will create a karyotype from a page of mixed chromosomes. How do these two chromosomes compare? Somatic cells include the skin, liver, muscle, stomach and other bodily cells. Paste the snapshot into a document. Most human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. You numbers should range from 1 largest to 22 smallest.
Abnormalities, such as extra or deleted chromosomes can then be diagnosed. Define the following terms: Somatic Cell Karyotype Diploid chromosome number Autosome 14. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Females have two copies of the X chromosome. Question: How are male karyotypes different from female karyotypes? Which chromosome did you select? Finding incorrect chromosomes numbers in human somatic cells of an unborn baby alerts doctors to the fact that their child is abnormal and will be born with birth defects. These individuals are normal and do not have any particular symptoms. Then select another chromosome, identify it, and place it on the karyotype.
Most human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Use the arrows to click through the numbered list of chromosomes at the bottom right of the pane. Once you have completed the karyotype, take a snapshot of it. The dye stains regions of chromosomes that are rich in the base pairs Adenine A and Thymine T producing a dark band. Karyotyping Activity Karyotyping Activity Introduction This exercise is a simulation of human karyotyping using digital images of chromosomes from actual human genetic studies. Females have two copies of the X chromosome. Note that the sex chromosomes have been labeled for you as either X or Y chromosomes.